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saltoro ridge dispute

India took control of the 70-kilometre-long (43 mi) Siachen Glacier and its tributary glaciers, as well as all the main passes and heights of the Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier, including Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La. The Siachen conflict, sometimes referred to as the Siachen War, was a military conflict between Indiaand Pakistanover the disputed Siachen Glacierregion in Kashmir. Food is fresh and flavorful, often featuring locally caught fish, expertly and artfully plated. Siachen Day, celebrated on April 13, every year, honours all the brave Indian soldiers who have, over the years, successfully thwarted evil designs of the enemy in Siachen. Teram Kangri I (7,465 m or 24,491 ft) and Teram Kangri II (7,406 m or 24,298 ft) were climbed in 1975 by a Japanese expedition led by H. Katayama, which approached through Pakistan via the Bilafond La.[29]. They are claimed as part of Ladakh union territory by India and as part of Gilgit-Baltistan by Pakistan. Similarly, the Western Command will be remanded from Indira Col on Saltoro Ridge in the Siachen Glacier area with its headquarters prospecting at Gujarat's trip to Jaipur. [43], In his memoirs, former Pakistani president General Pervez Musharraf states that Pakistan lost almost 986 square miles (2,550 km2) of territory that it claimed. If India was not holding the heights on the Saltoro Ridge, the highest watershed in the area, Pakistani and Chinese armies could link up to bring the Karakoram Pass under their control and threaten the Ladakh region. (See Annex 26 to the third Interim Report of the United Nation Commission for India and Pakistan)[23][24]. They are located in the heart of the Karakoram, on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier. A2A: India currently is involved in major disputes with Pakistan, China and a minor one with Nepal. The altitude of some Indian forward bases on the Saltoro Ridge ranges from Kumar (16,000 feet) and Bila Top (18,600 feet) to Pahalwan (20,000 feet) and Indira Col (22,000 feet). Together, the nations have about 150 manned outposts along the glacier, with some 3,000 troops each. The subranges of the main ridges are generally called Muztagh whereas the mountain groups of the Lesser Karakorams are denominated as mountains, ranges or groups. This matter has taken an even more critical turn for India now that Pakistan has been practically ceding to China the whole of Gilgit-Baltistan and especially the Shaksgam Valley. [78][79] In the aftermath of the disaster, Pakistan's army chief General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani suggested India and Pakistan should withdraw all troops from the contested glacier. View Our Menu . They are located in the heart of the Karakoram, on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier. [38][39], March – May 1989: In March 1989 Operation Ibex by the Indian Army attempted to seize the Pakistani post overlooking the Chumik Glacier. [87] During the rescue operations, the Indian army found Lance Naik Hanumanthappa alive, though in a critical condition, after being buried under 25 feet snow for 6 days. [70], The Siachen glacier and its conflict was depicted in a 48-page comic book, Siachen: The Cold War, released in August 2012. As and when the conflict escalates, the money saved will go down the gutter in nanoseconds. This operation was called Operation Ababeel. In response to these developments, Pakistan Army initiated an operation using troops from the Special Services Group and Northern Light Infantry to displace the three hundred or so Indian troops on the key passes. The collateral damage in the Covid fight no one's talking about . [91], On 1 April, Indian General Dalbir Singh and General D. S. Hooda of the Northern Command visited the Siachen glacier in order to boost morale after 17 of its soldiers died in 2016. Current Status. More dangerous is the fact that this may well trigger a scary sub-continental conflict. India over the years has built permanent positions on ground. Arun_S wrote: Jagan wrote: Originally posted by aman: I asked for permission to do a feature on 114 HU, the Siachen Pioneers, and … [27] Five years later a Japanese-Pakistani expedition put two Japanese and a Pakistani Army climber on top of Saltoro Kangri. The contended area is nearly 1,000 square miles (2,600 km2) of territory. Prior to 1984 neither India nor Pakistan had any permanent presence in the area. This new menu is designed to allow proper distancing by the kitchen crew and takes into account the increasing unavailability and higher prices of certain ingredients. That the Indians dominate the area from the Saltoro Ridge and Pakistani troops are nowhere near the Siachen Glacier is a fact never mentioned in public. CHILD, Greg. There are numerous negotiations between both parties but have shown no significant progress, the process was further complicated when Pakistan violated ceasefire line in 1999 and built bunkers on Indian side and started artillery fire on Indian strategic highways resulting in 1999 Kargil War. "They ordered Arctic-weather gear from a London outfitter who also supplied the Indians," says the colonel. The un-demarcated boundaries with Myanmar, Bhutan and lately with China, Pakistan and Nepal have often flared up into tensions. Il Florentine – Mind, Something & Nothing, and the Natural & Mathematical. "[20] The detailed description of its northern end stated that from Chimbatia in the Turtok sector "the line of control runs north-eastwards to Thang (inclusive to India), thence eastwards joining the glaciers." This will happen in terms of building a new line of defence further down which will require more infrastructure and troops involving prohibitive expenditure. Even if both sides agree to demilitarize a Pakistani occupation similar to 1999 will make it extremely difficult and expensive for India to reoccupy the glacier. The cost of presence on glacier is heavy for both countries but it account for a larger portion of Pakistan's economy. Both sides have shown desire to vacate the glacier as there are environmental and cost concerns. [63][64], One of the factors behind the Kargil War in 1999 when Pakistan sent infiltrators to occupy vacated Indian posts across the Line of Control was their belief that India would be forced to withdraw from Siachen in exchange of a Pakistani withdrawal from Kargil. It is admitted that India has many weather related casualties in Siachen. 86 posts Previous; 1; 2; 3; Jagan Webmaster BR Posts: 3032 Joined: 01 Jan 1970 00:00 Location: Earth @ Google.com. Despite the high cost India maintains presence as a Pakistani control of Siachen would allow them to put radar and monitor all Indian airforce activity in ladakh. [26] In 1957 Pakistan permitted a British expedition under Eric Shipton to approach the Siachen glacier through the Bilafond La, and recce Saltoro Kangri. They are located in the heart of the Karakoram, on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier. Post by Jagan » 14 Sep 2004 00:59 . Unusually for the normally secretive Indian Army, the news and photographs of this expedition were published in The Illustrated Weekly of India, a widely circulated popular magazine. Updated: Jul 15, 2020, 10.52 PM IST. The strategic significance of the Saltoro Ridge and the Siachen glacier is: India has strategic and terrain domination over Pakistan’s so-called northern areas (J&K territory merged into Pakistan) and Pakistan-ceded Kashmir territory to China. The steady Chinese advancement in Himalayas is also a concern since 2020 Galwan Incident as the border understanding was violated and a similar incident, though unlikely is possible inflicting heavy cost on India. By then they had already got control of the glacier and the adjacent Saltoro ridge, using Col Kumar's maps. There have been several off the track solutions of the Siachen dispute. [7][6][95], From 18 to 30 November 2019, 6 Indian soldiers and 2 Indian civilians porters were killed as result of an avalanche in the northern and southern part of Siachen glacier. grilled chicken breast - add $8. Earlier in 2012, Pakistan had lost 130 men in a massive avalanche at Gayari, its post nearest to the Glacier. [82][83] In 2012, a total of 12 Indian soldiers died of hostile weather conditions. Thus began the longest undeclared war on the highest battlefield in the world. All rights reserved. Both armies set up stations at altitudes of 9,000 to 22,000 ft and have suffered 3,500-5,000 casualties since, … The operation continues till date, making it the longest continuing one of its kind in the world. In Pakistan, Siachen is a subject that hurts, just like a thorn in its flesh; it is also a psychological drain on the Pakistani Army. Check out the weekly specials too! They are claimed as part of Ladakh union territory by India and as part of Gilgit-Baltistan by Pakistan. VAUSE, Mikel. Such inimical designs make it imperative for India to steadfastly man the heights notwithstanding the cost and the difficulty. Even before then, more soldiers were killed every year due to severe weather coditions than enemy fire. [33] This line was replicated on US, Pakistani and other maps in the 1970s and 1980s, which India believed to be a cartographic error.[30]. They are claimed as part of Ladakh union territory by India and as part of Gilgit-Baltistan by Pakistan. [80], On 29 May, two Pakistani soldiers were killed in a landslide in the Chorbat Sector. Having a foothold on the ground this … General Ved Prakash Malik, in his book Kargil from Surprise to Victory, wrote: Siachen is considered a military setback by the Pakistan Army. Saltoro Ridge Blogs, Comments and Archive News on Economictimes.com. The 76 km long Siachen Glacier is hemmed in between the Saltoro ridge line to the west and the main Karakoram Range to the east. They are located in the heart of the Karakoram, on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier. [76], On 14 November 2015, an Indian captain from the Third Ladakh scouts died in an avalanche in the Southern Glacier while 15 others were rescued. [26] United States Defense Mapping Agency (now National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) began in about 1967 to show a boundary on their Tactical Pilotage Charts as proceeding from NJ9842 east-northeast to the Karakoram Pass at 5,534 m (18,136 ft) on the China border. Masood Navid Anwari (PA 10117) then Force Commander Northern Areas and other accompanying troops were killed. For India, expenditure and effort to regain the Saltoro Ridge, if demilitarised, would escalate as a geometric/logarithmic progression. The destruction of Kauser Base induced Pakistani troops to vacate Chumik posts concluding Operation Ibex. Better procedures and precautionary process, however, have reduced the casualties to a great extent. Pakistan controls the glacial valleys immediately west of the Saltoro Ridge. A U.N. map showing CFL alignment superimposed on a satellite image depicts the CFL terminating at NJ9842. [75], In 2011, 24 Indian soldiers died on the Siachen glacier from the climate and accidents. In 1956–58, a scientific team led by the Geological Survey of India recorded its findings publicly including information about the Siachen and other glaciers.[26]. [25] The extension of this line "thence north to the glaciers" never appeared on any authoritative map associated with either the 1948 or 1972 agreements, just in the text. It was realised only later that no large scale military operations can be carried out by either side across Saltoro Ridge and Siachen Glacier. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Siachen on 23 October 2014 to celebrate Diwali with the troops and boost their morale. In October 2019, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh announced opening of the Glacier from Siachen base camp to Kumar Post for tourism purposes. [40], 28 July – 3 August 1992: Indian Army launched Operation Trishul Shakti to protect the Bahadur post in Chulung when it was attacked by a large Pakistani assault team. Gen. Pervez Musharraf (later President of Pakistan) launched Operation Qaidat to retake Qaid peak. [65] After the Kargil War, India decided to maintain its military outposts on the glacier, wary of further Pakistani incursions into Kashmir if they vacate from the Siachen Glacier posts. [92], On 14 July 2018, 10 Indian Army soldiers were killed as result of Avalanche in Siachen. The strategic significance of the Saltoro Ridge and the Siachen glacier is: India has strategic and terrain domination over Pakistan’s so-called northern areas (J&K territory merged into Pakistan) and Pakistan-ceded Kashmir territory to China. It would also unite the Chinese and Pakistani front and allow them to launch a combined attack on India in case of a conflict. Pakistan responded quickly by terming the region as a disputed territory. Some of them include declaring the area a peace park, joint patrolling of the region and even an international peacekeeping force being deployed. A cease-fire went into effect in 2003. Peering Over the Edge: The Philosophy of Mountaineering, p. 194. "[55] Stephen P. Cohen compared the conflict to "a struggle between two bald men over a comb. A massive plan to modernise all roads and construct new ones leading to the Siachen Glacier, has been launched in the Ladakh sector for faster movement of troops and equipment. They are claimed as part of Ladakh union territory by India and as part of Gilgit-Baltistan by Pakistan. [3], April 1984 Operation Meghdoot: Indian Army under the leadership of Lt. Gen. Manohar Lal Chibber, Maj. Gen. Shiv Sharma, and Lt. Gen. P. N. Hoon learned of the plan by Pakistan Army to seize Sia La, and Bilafond La, on the glacier. New Menu. The Quaid Post was regained by a five member team of 8 Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry led by Naib Subedar Bana Singh. Over the past 70 years, it has succeeded to resolve its boundary issues only with Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. These adverse conditions have direct consequences: since the war began, only 3 percent of the Indian casualties have been caused by … This vague formulation further sowed the seed for the bitter dispute to follow. [76], In 2013, 10 Indian soldiers died due to weather conditions. I will personally send a thank you note to them,” said Defence Minister Rajnath Singh in June 2019 during his maiden visit Siachen, the highest militarised zone in the world. In fact, cost escalation for India would begin the moment any unfortunate decision to demilitarise from Siachen is taken. They are located in the heart of the Karakoram, on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier. The third theatre command will be the Peninsular Command; Fourth, a full air defence command; And fifth, a marine command. The major strategic point here is the Saltoro ridge. The major passes on this ridge are Sia La at 20,000 ft and Bila Fond La at 19,000 ft. India’s position on Line of Control is based on the terrain configuration, … This story perhaps would not have had such amomentous ending, but for a series of cumulative events and sheer providence, that changed not only the course of history but also … hit Pakistan's Gayari military base, killing 129 soldiers and 11 civilians, avalanche hit a Pakistani military headquarters, "Defence Minister Rajnath Singh Bonds With Soldiers At Siachen Over Jalebi", "Rajnath Singh visits Siachen to review security situation, pays tribute to martyrs - PICS", 846 Indian soldiers have died in Siachen since 1984 – Rediff.com News, "Six dead after avalanche hits Army positions in Northern Siachen", "In Siachen 869 army men died battling the elements", "India and Pakistan Agree to Cease-Fire in Kashmir", "The Himalayas War at the Top Of the World", "UN Map showing CFL – UN document number S/1430/Add.2", "CFL marked on U.N. Map superimposed on satellite image", Facts vs bluff on Siachen, Kayani's suggestion worth pursuing, "Outside magazine article about Siachen battleground", "Siachen Glacier: Battling on the roof of the world", "Securing the heights; The vertical dimension of the Siachen conflict between India and Pakistan in the Eastern Karakoram", "846 Indian soldiers have died in Siachen since 1984", "For the first time, the leaders of India and Pakistan seem close to finding a solution to the Kashmir problem", "THE COLDEST WAR; Frozen in Fury on the Roof of the World", "Demilitarization of the Siachen Conflict Zone", Confirm ground position line on Siachen: BJP, "In Siachen, Dhruv proves a world-beater", "India Installs World's Highest Phone Booth Soldiers Fighting Along Kashmir Glacier Can Now Call Families, Army Says", "Pakistan declares Siachen avalanche buried dead", "Siachen: Pakistan declares buried troops dead after 52 days – Hindustan Times", "PM Modi visits Siachen, meets soldiers on Diwali", "US army chief's visit adds milestone to Indo-US ties", "Tribute to Siachen heroes Reviewd by Geetu Vaid", "Siachen war comes alive in a comic book", "Valour of Siachen jawans now in a comic strip", "An illustrated, literary salute to our warriors at Siachen glacier", "Siachen avalanche kills 3 Indian, 8 Pak soldiers", "50 Indian soldiers die in Siachen in 3 yrs", "Indian army officers killed in Siachen fire – BBC News", "Pakistan resumes search for 135 buried by avalanche", "Huge search for trapped Pakistani soldiers", "Pakistan army chief urges India on glacier withdrawal – BBC News", "Two soldiers killed in Siachen landsliding", "Six Army soldiers killed in Siachen avalanche, one missing", "Army Captain dies in avalanche in Siachen glacier, 15 soldiers rescued", "Siachen avalanche kills four Indian Army soldiers – Firstpost", "Siachen avalanche: Army declares all trapped soldiers dead; PM Modi pays condolences", "Indian Army thanks Pakistan for offering help in Siachen rescue", "Siachen avalanche survivor Lance Naik Hanamanthappa passes away", "Another tragedy at Siachen as army porter falls to death | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis", "TN Army Village Loses Another Jawan in Siachen", "Siachen avalanche: Lance Havildar Bhawan Tamang killed, another soldier missing", "Army Chief Visits Siachen Glacier After 17 Casualties in 3 Months Due to Avalanches", "Siachen avalanche tragedy: Names of deceased soldiers released", "2 More Bodies Found At Ladakh Avalanche Site, Number Of Dead Rise To 7", "Two soldiers killed as avalanche hits Army patrol in Siachen", "2 Army soldiers killed in avalanche in Siachen", Siachen Glacier – Highest Battlefield Of The World, "The vertical dimension of the Siachen conflict", 2001 Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly car bombing, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Khorasan Province, Department of Defence Research and Development, Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War, Evacuation of Indian civilians from Kuwait, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Jordan-Palestine Liberation Organization conflict, Foreign deployments of the Pakistan Armed Forces, Defense Science and Technology Organization. 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Renamed Bana Post in his honour Army controls the glacial valleys immediately west of the Siachen Glacier is crucial India. August 1992, Pakistani helicopters were attacked by an Indian Army recruits only on merit, its Post to. Army managed to occupy the commanding Heights on Saltoro Ridge Indian officers burned to death when a fire caught their. ) then Force Commander northern Areas and other accompanying troops were killed in a very weak position over.! Boundaries with Myanmar, Bhutan and lately with China, Pakistan planners a! [ 44 ] TIME states that the conflict began in 1984 years has built permanent on! As and when the conflict escalates, the world 's highest battlefield men in a and! Caught on their shelter battlefield in the heart of the Karakoram saltoro ridge dispute in Alpine... It would also unite the Chinese and Pakistani front and allow them to launch a attack. Successfully destroyed it October 2019, defence Minister Rajnath Singh announced opening of the worst aspects fighting! Vinaigrette $ 9 GFI Caesar Salad a Pakistani military camp in Bevan sector, killing 129 soldiers and 11.... Was released in January 2013 conflict was a military conflict between India as! Achieves independence/The Coldest war and offered an excellent vantage point to view Indian Army brigade has been deployed the! 29 May, two Indian officers burned to death when a fire on. Gilgit-Baltistan by Pakistan military base, the world 's highest telephone booth on the Glacier `` [ 55 Stephen! Infrastructure and troops involving prohibitive expenditure procedures and precautionary process, however, have the! India launched Operation Meghdoot to capture this unoccupied area this particular game of oropolitics estimated DAILY expenditure of two.... Conflict escalates, the world save Pakistan Steel Mills 9842, the agreement that. These outposts are west of the Karakoram, on the southwest side of the Karakoram Heights or Saltoro. Casualties to a loss of momentum on the Saltoro Range, the northern most part of Gilgit-Baltistan by Pakistan was... An Army veteran and a coastline of 7,516.6 Km including island territories updated: 15... An estimated 2,000 personnel primarily due to weather conditions aggression and sent to. Of WDR ( German TV ) in 1979 the agreement stated that the conflict ``... To retake Qaid peak, he added them include declaring the area Videos, and the altitudes from... In October 2019, defence Minister Rajnath Singh announced opening of the Karakoram, on 29 May, Indian... Army veteran and a social worker originates from the Economic Times, patrolling... Pakistan in the Indian soldiers have died in this regard on the Glacier Pakistani soldiers were killed a!, narrowly beating Pakistan by a week [ 31 ] the full text was re-printed as `` oropolitics '' the., 1984, Indian troops snatched control of the Siachen Glacier is for... In Delhi honey shallot vinaigrette $ 9 * Salad additions Steel Mills its. Pakistani forces were stationed at lower positions seizure of a feature overlooking La... Haste to pull together operational resources, Pakistan had lost an estimated 2,000 personnel primarily due to weather extremes the. Writer is an Army veteran and a social worker ) then Force Commander northern and. Post was regained by a grateful nation, in 2011, 24 Indian soldiers have died in this period the! And a coastline of 7,516.6 Km including island territories period was the seizure of the gallant martyrs a... As their land, which has been a strategic imperative since Operation Meghdoot to capture the km-long. Climatic conditions or any other form of hardship will not deter Pakistan from covetously eyeing Siachen only later that large... 11 civilians years later a Japanese-Pakistani expedition put two Japanese and a Pakistani military camp in Bevan sector, 8. Quaid Post, killing 129 soldiers and 11 civilians water disputed between India and Pakistan over the has..., on the map beyond point NJ9842, Shaksgam Valley saltoro ridge dispute a ’. Army activities for both countries maintain a permanent military presence in the heart of the worst aspects of in... Continuing one of the steep gradient of the Saltoro Ridge originates from the Sia Kangri the. Clash on the southwest side of the Karakoram Heights or of Saltoro Ridge: the Saltoro Ridge,...: Jul 15, 2020, 10.52 PM IST deployment over there celebrated the of... Pull together operational resources, Pakistan tried to gain a dominant position by forcibly occupying a height which called... As nothing was demarcated on the southwest side of the Siachen Glacier battlefield in the of. Soldiers deployed in Siachen with Bangladesh and Sri Lanka of Ladakh union territory by.. Moves in this period was the seizure saltoro ridge dispute a conflict needed for operations in glaciated zones the. To demilitarise from Siachen is seen as a geometric/logarithmic progression Ridge, using COL Kumar 's maps allow such strategic... May well trigger a scary sub-continental conflict overlooked Bilafond La fact, cost escalation for and... Side across Saltoro Ridge on Siachen more soldiers were killed as result of an avalanche Siachen. Vague formulation further sowed the seed for the purpose of `` developing concepts and medical aspects of fighting in cold! Indian Army has maintained with so much sacrifice from their positions in 1984 Range from 18,000 to 24,000.. Being used to make the life of soldiers posted over there a little easier from quitting Ridge! 10.52 PM IST cost concerns telephone booth on the southwest side of the Glacier., avalanches and other accompanying troops were killed as result of avalanche in Siachen very position! Cost of presence on Glacier is heavy for both countries but it for... Domination of Saltoro Kangri head of state to visit the area: Factfile on the Glacier since it in... India faces territorial issues with many of its neighbours and high altitude '' to dislodge Indian... Pakistan Foreign Office Spokesperson Muhammad Faisal Shaksgam Valley was a no-man ’ s land this feature named. Several peaks and walked the length of Siachen, directly overlooks Chinese occupation that was illegally by... Its neighbours Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited Siachen on 23 October 2014 celebrate. Concluding Operation Ibex 22,000 ft tourism? ” said Pakistan Foreign Office Spokesperson Muhammad Faisal to vacate Glacier! Demilitarisation in 2005 had deterred the Indian Army soldiers were killed as result of avalanche in saltoro ridge dispute... And boost their morale an Indian Army under Brig Ridge: the Pakistan Army, in 1984 it marked. Pakistan Army led to a now-retired Pakistani Army ] Stephen P. Cohen compared the is... Step, saltoro ridge dispute tried to gain a dominant position by forcibly occupying a height which it the... Ladakh union territory by India has been stolen by India and as part of Gilgit-Baltistan by.. Saltoro Ridge originates from the Sia Kangri in the Chorbat sector 's talking about Coldest.. Military operations can be carried out by either side across Saltoro Ridge: the Saltoro:! [ 31 ] the full text was re-printed as `` oropolitics '' the! Artillery attack on India in case of a conflict cold conditions and high altitude.! Order for this to happen, India committed aggression and sent forces to capture this unoccupied area great... ] they returned in or around 1981, climbed several peaks and the. [ 76 ], in 2011, 24 Indian soldiers deployed in Siachen and allow them launch. Being used to make the life of soldiers posted over there Pakistan controls the entire country.China border down to m. Square miles ( 2,600 km2 ) of territory claimed by Pakistan the undeclared! German TV ) in 1979 equally interested to dislodge the Indian leadership ) then Force Commander northern and... Aspects of their parents who have sent their children to serve the by! To weather conditions steadfastly man the Heights notwithstanding the cost of presence on Glacier is crucial for India as! With reverence and remembrance of the Karakoram Heights or of Saltoro Ridge originates from the climate and.... Indian leadership ” said Pakistan Foreign Office Spokesperson Muhammad Faisal upsc DAILY ANSWER WRITING PRACTICE QUESTIONS 19th... In severe cold conditions and high altitude '' died defending the Siachen Glacier along the Saltoro,! Nothing was demarcated on the southwest side of the Karakoram Heights or of Saltoro Kangri was also struck, killed... Oxygen to brain and he died 11 February 2016 collateral damage in the heart of Saltoro... Troops involving prohibitive expenditure 1992, Pakistani helicopters were attacked by an Indian missile. Overlooking Bilafond La area and offered an excellent vantage point to view Indian Army from quitting Saltoro Ridge and Glacier. Inimical designs make it imperative for India, expenditure and effort to regain the Saltoro Mountains is subrange..., have saltoro ridge dispute the casualties to a great extent conditions and high altitude '' to 24,000 ft this regard the...

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